Household LED lamps

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Household LED lamps
Lamp sizes and bases
LED lamps intended to be interchangeable with incandescent lamps are made in standard light bulb shapes, such as an Edison screw base, an MR16 shape with a bi-pin base, or a GU5.3 (Bipin cap) or GU10 (bayonet socket). LED lamps are made in low voltage (typically 12 V halogen-like) varieties, and as replacements for regular AC (e.g. 120 or 240 V AC) lighting. These lamps include circuitry to rectify the AC power and to convert the voltage to a level usable by the internal LED elements.
LED light bulbs
Many LED lamps have become available as replacements for screw-in incandescent or compact fluorescent light bulbs, ranging from low-power 5–40 watt incandescent bulbs, through conventional replacement bulbs for 60 watt incandescent bulbs (typically requiring about 7 watts of power), and as of 2010 a few lamps were available to replace higher wattage bulbs, e.g., a 16-watt LED bulb which is claimed to be as bright as a 150W halogen lamp (A standard general-purpose incandescent bulb emits light at an efficiency of about 14 to 17 lumens/W depending on its size and voltage. According to the European Union standard, an energy-efficient bulb that claims to be the equivalent of a 60W tungsten bulb must have a minimum light output of 806 lumens.)
Most LED bulbs are not designed to be dimmed (although some models are designed to work with dimmers), and are usually directional. The lamps have declined in cost to between US$30 to $50 each as of 2010. These bulbs are more power-efficient than compact fluorescent bulbs and offer lifespans of 30,000 or more hours, reduced if operated at a higher temperature than specified. Incandescent bulbs have a typical life of 1,000 hours, compact fluorescents about 8,000 hours.[citation needed] (One year is about 8,700 hours.) The bulbs maintain output light intensity very well over their life-times. Energy Star specifications require the bulbs to typically drop less than 10% after 6000 or more hours of operation, and in the worst case not more than 15%. They are also mercury-free, unlike fluorescent lamps. LED lamps are available with a variety of color properties. The higher purchase cost than other types may be more than offset by savings in energy and maintenance.
Specialty uses
White LED lamps have achieved market dominance in applications where high efficiency is important at low power levels. Some of these applications include flashlights, solar-powered garden or walkway lights, and bicycle lights. Monochromatic (colored) LED lamps are now commercially used for traffic signal lamps, where the ability to emit bright monochromatic light is a desired feature, and in strings of holiday lights.
LED lights have also become very popular in gardening and agriculture by 2010. First used by NASA to grow plants in space, LEDs came into use for home and commercial applications for indoor horticulture (aka grow lights).The wavelengths of light emitted from LED lamps have been specifically tailored to supply light in the spectral range needed for chlorophyll absorption in plants, promoting growth while reducing wastage of energy by emitting minimal light at wavelengths that plants do not require. The red and blue wavelengths of the visible light spectrum are used for photosynthesis, so these are the colors almost always used in LED grow light panels. These lights are attractive to indoor growers since they use less power than other types for the same light intensity, need no ballasts, and emit much less heat than HID lamps. The reduction in heat allows time between watering cycles to be extended because the plants transpire less under LED grow lights. Due to this change in growth conditions, users of LEDs are advised not to over-water the plants.
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